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The impact of Third Generation in the New Millennium


Third Generation wireless is the name commonly used to refer to the next-generation mobile wireless telecommunications services. In October 13, 2000, President Clinton signed an executive memorandum that stated the need and urgency for the United States to select radio frequency spectrum to satisfy the future needs of the citizens and businesses for mobile voice, high-speed data, and Internet-accessible wireless capability. The guiding principles to be used for the development of Third Generation (3G) wireless systems; and the direction to the Federal agencies to carry out the selection of spectrum.

The Federal Communications Commission (FCC), in conjunction with National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA), is expected to identify spectrum by July 2001, and auction licenses to competing applicants by September 30, 2002.

The purpose of this paper is to inform the reader, what Third Generation wireless system is? The history of Third Generation wireless and how Third Generation wireless is going to shape the communication industry.




This is a secondary research based on new and continuously evolving technology. Due to the technology being new to market, most of the source of information will be gathered from Government resources as well as the Internet. Also, several articles from magazines and news wires will be used to back up the information of this research. 



What is Third Generation Wireless?

According to Federal Communication Commission, Third Generation or 3G systems provides access, by means of one or more radio links, to a wide range of telecommunication services supported by the fixed telecommunication networks and to other services that are specific to mobile users. A range of mobile terminal types will be encompassed, linking to terrestrial and/or satellite-based networks, and the terminals may be designed for mobile or fixed use. The Third Generation family of services, and the systems that will provide them, are intended to reflect a high degree of commonality and are to be compatible with each other.

Third Generation services will support mobile and fixed users employing a wide range of devices including small pocket terminals, handheld telephones, laptop computers, and fixed-receiver equipment. Also, Third Generation services are envisioned to be ubiquitous throughout the globe, as available in a remote part of a developing country as they are in an urban area in a highly developed country.

Seamless roaming is a key attribute in Third Generation services. Access to services is expected to be uniform. Furthermore, the user will be able to roam from an urban to a suburban and into a rural setting without loss of basic services.

Wideband Code Division Multiple Access (WCDMA) is the infrastructure technology most Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) and Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) carriers are expected to use to migrate their services to 3G capabilities. Most Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) carriers are expected to move to Third Generation capabilities with cdma2000. Third Generation technology will provide high-speed mobile access to Internet-based services.

Third Generation service will add an invaluable mobile dimension to services that are already an integral part of modern business life. These include the Internet, Intranets, video-conferencing, and the interactive sharing of office applications to manage sales, appointments and business documents.

Third Generation will support new and flexible working practices, providing employees with access to a wide range of information and services whether they are at their own desk or elsewhere.

It’s for employees who sometimes work at home. For example, the accountants who carry out audits at client premises or on-site maintenance engineers who need access to detailed instruction manuals or emergency services workers who need video links with hospitals or doctors.

Third Generation wireless impacts our day-to-day lives in all sorts of new ways, from simple task as playing interactive computer games to shopping and banking over the Net.

Third Generation will mean many things to many people. But most all it will be about speed, intelligence, convenience and having the Internet at your fingertips – all the time.



History of Third Generation Wireless System


After the 1992 World Administrative Radio Conference (WARC-92), the FCC conducted auctions for licenses in the paired 1850-1910/1930-1990 MHz band which lead to the rapid deployment of advanced mobile wireless communications services throughout the United States (Reference # 2).

The success of the PCS rollout has done much to increase competition in the provision of mobile telecommunications services in the United States and at the same time has stimulated the demand for even more advanced wireless services. Recently, countries around the world have started to license 3G systems within paired frequency bands identified at WARC-92: 1920-1980/2110-2170 MHz (Reference # 2). For example, Germany and United Kingdom have, conducted auctions for International Mobile Telecommunication – 2000 (IMT-2000) spectrum within the past four months. The United States and the European experience indicates that the demand for advanced mobile services is projected to continue to grow at a rapid rate for some time to come.

At the 2000 World Radiocommunication Conference (WRC-2000), additional spectrum to support IMT-2000 services was identified. Three frequency bands, consistent with those proposed by the United States to the conference, were identified for use by administrations wishing to implement IMT-2000 services in addition to those adopted at WARC-92.

During preparations for WRC-2000, the United States committed to studying the feasibility of using the 1755-1850 MHz and 2500-2690 MHz bands (or parts thereof) for IMT-2000 operations. Such a study would involve determining the impact of the operation of IMT-2000 systems on the systems already licensed to operate in these bands. The 1755-1850 MHz band is used in the United States to support Government services, mostly military space operations, air-to-air training missions, and tactical communications operations. The 1755-1850 MHz band is also used by Federal law enforcement agencies to conduct covert video surveillance across the United States and Possessions (US&P) during criminal investigations and protective/security operations. The 1710-1755 MHz portion of the 1700/1800 MHz band identified at WRC-2000 is currently in the process of becoming available for commercial use. The 1850-1885 MHz portion of the same IMT-2000 band is already used to support PCS operations in the United States. The 2500-2690 MHz band is used to provide instructional television fixed services and multi-point distribution services throughout the United States (Reference # 2).

Because of the physical processes governing the propagation of radio waves in the frequency range below 3 GHz, these frequencies can be efficiently transmitted and received by small, compact, relatively lightweight user terminals. This feature, coupled with the ability to support high data rates, makes them ideally suited for uses requiring mobility and portability of telecommunications services. Any Third Generation service that is targeted to mobile users is most effectively provided by taking advantage of the properties of radio waves operating below 3 GHz. Those 3G applications where the data rates are so high that fixed terminals are needed, or terminals that require antennas so large that they can only be employed in a stationary configuration, are better provided using frequencies above 3 GHz that can more effectively support higher data rate systems. It is the problem of identifying the spectrum bands that can and cannot be used to support 3G services that forms the crux of the effort to assess the degree to which IMT-2000 services can be included in bands already encumbered by services operating at 1755-1850 and 2500-2690 MHz.

In order to determine the impact of operating IMT-2000 systems in bands that are encumbered, it is necessary to assess to what degree the proposed and incumbent systems can co-exist in the same band. Stated in simple radio engineering terms, it is necessary to determine whether or not harmful interference is generated into one of the systems (incumbent or proposed) by the operation of the other(s). Furthermore, if it is determined that harmful interference is likely to occur, it is desirable to isolate the conditions under which it occurs and whether or not there exists means to mitigate its effects and costs associated with implementing such mitigation techniques.

The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) has been fostering the development of the underlying radio and network standards for what is now defined as International Mobile Telecommunications-2000 (IMT-2000) services for over 15 years. The radio transmission technologies (RTTs) providing for standardized 3G air-interfaces adopted in November 1998 were the culmination of many years of arduous effort under the auspices of the ITU's Radiocommunication Sector (ITU-R) Task Group. These RTTs form the basis for connecting the user's mobile or portable device to the physical infrastructure supporting IMT-2000 services. ITU-R also developed methods that can be used to assess the amount of additional spectrum needed to accommodate the expected future growth in demand for 3G mobile services. The ITU's Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T) is actively working to develop 3G signaling and communication protocols, network requirements needed to support expected 3G services, and service definitions for IMT-2000 applications (Reference # 2).

Consumer demand for quality services available at any place any time, coupled with the expectation of high quality and increased transmission speed, are key drivers in the effort to establish commonality and compatibility of 3G terrestrial telecommunication systems. It is estimated that by the year 2010 there will be one billion wireless subscribers worldwide on 3G networks. The worldwide penetration of wireless service is expected to rise up to 30 percent by the end of the first decade of the new millennium. Currently it is approximately 7.5 percent (Reference # 9).

Presently, there are over 1,300 cellular and second-generation terrestrial mobile service networks operating worldwide, each with a limited geographic coverage (Reference # 9). It becomes more important to harmonize spectrum allocations for Third Generation services if companies are to provide uniform services and seamless roaming on a regional or global scale.



System Requirements

The key features of 3rd Generation systems are a high degree of commonality of design worldwide, compatibility of services, use of small pocket terminals with worldwide roaming capability, Internet and other multimedia applications, and a wide range of services and terminals. According to the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) International Mobile Telecommunications 2000 initiative (IMT-2000) Third Generation mobile (3G) system services were initiated around the year 2000. The initiation was subject to market considerations. The following Table describes some of the key service attributes and capabilities expected of 3G systems:


3G System Capabilities

Capability to support circuit and packet data at high bit rates:

  • 144 kilobits/second or higher in high mobility (vehicular) traffic
  • 384 kilobits/second for pedestrian traffic
  • 2 Megabits/second or higher for indoor traffic

Interoperability and roaming

Common billing/user profiles:

  • Sharing of usage/rate information between service providers
  • Standardized call detail recording
  • Standardized user profiles

Capability to determine geographic position of mobiles and report it to both the network and the mobile terminal

Support of multimedia services/capabilities:

  • Fixed and variable rate bit traffic
  • Bandwidth on demand
  • Asymmetric data rates in the forward and
  • reverse links
  • Multimedia mail store and forward
  • Broadband access up to 2 Megabits/second


The ITU concluded that 3G, systems required use of spectrum that extends beyond that already encumbered by first and second generation mobile systems. A major issue in the global debate regarding 3G system design, standards, and services that must be resolved is the amount of common or "harmonized" spectrum that will be available on a global and regional basis to support 3G systems. For ease in roaming, to help stimulate commonality in services and economies of scale, proponents of 3G services believe it is important to identify as much contiguous, harmonized spectrum to support worldwide 3G operations as is practical. This will stimulate the development of global and regional coverage of 3G systems by reducing the cost and complexity for system development, thus providing users with more cost-effective services.

Referring back to the data rates given in the first row in Table 1 above, and assuming state-of-the-art data compression capabilities, signal processing gains, and signal processor chip rates, the amount of channel bandwidth needed to provide wireless services at 2 mbs could be as much as 15-20 MHz (one-way); at 384 kbs it could be a high as 5 MHz (one-way). The current second-generation mobile systems easily support 9.6-14.4 kbs data rates using channel bandwidths of 30-200 kHz, with 64 kbs being possible when employing sophisticated channelization and coding schemes. The 25 to over 500-fold increase in channel bandwidth needed to provide higher-end data rates dramatically illustrates the reason for the demand for additional spectrum to support 3G wireless services.




Programming Language for Wireless System


Services on Third Generation networks are divided into two primary domains:

  • Internet-type data and transactional services such as email, travel services, games, stock trading and commerce
  • IP-based multimedia services such as voice calls, audio broadcasts, and video conferencing.

Java is the best solution in delivering the Internet-style services on Third Generation networks. Sun Microsystems’s, the owner of Java technologies, vision for Internet-style service is to deliver them as context-sensitive Java application with a device-downloadable portion and a server–side portion.

The wireless landscape can be partitioned into seven segments (Operations support System/Business Support System, Access Device, Radio Access Network, Core Network, Security Delivery Network, Content and Services, and Developer Tools and Support), based on the different functions required to build and deliver Third Generations wireless network services. Figure 1 shows the layers of the wireless service delivery segments. Sun offers technology across all of the seven segments, creating an integrated end-to-end architecture. Third Generation wireless network services include:

  • Access Devices – Java2ME platforms for easy development of rich services; Java Card APIs and Java Cryptography extensions for secure connections and access to Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) card information
  • Radio Access Networks and Core Networks – open and reliable networking platforms to create cost-effective networks of services.
  • Service Delivery Networks – scalable platforms for Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting (AAA), directory servers, database servers, and portal services; middleware applications from E-commerce Solutions, for building those services.
  • Content and Services – J2EE technologies for application integration and transactional and secure Virtual Private Networks(VPNs) infrastructure and middleware applications for running web and directory servers.
  • Operations Support System/Business Support System (OSS/BSS) - Java technology provides the support required to keep the network running.
  • Development tool and support – Java technology provides the support required building new services.

Sun’s technology main focus for each of these segments is to offer:

  • Pervasive security
  • IP and open standards communication
  • Java Technology to meet the specific needs of each segment.



Figure 1 Wireless Service Delivery Segments

Sun Microsystems and wireless service device provider are partnering in providing Mobile Information Device (MID) enabling the creation of next generation, personalized, interactive service for wireless devices.

Java technology enabled interactive services are the next step beyond today's text-based static content. Java software enhances the user experience by supporting easy-to-use, graphical, interactive services for wireless devices. Examples include:

    • Dynamically-generated, personalized stock quotes that can display graphs and give purchase and/or sell alerts for specific stocks utilizing the wireless network efficiently.
    • Real-time, location-specific weather reports that display periodic forecast updates.
    • Real time, location specific traffic reports that update local traffic conditions and supply alternate highway routes depending on traffic delays and accidents.
    • Games that can downloaded and played offline by individual users achieving cost-effective use of the wireless network.

The MIDP specification addresses issues such as user interface, persistence storage, networking, and application model.

The MID Profile provides a standard runtime environment that allows new applications and services to be dynamically deployed on the end user devices. The MIDP specification has been developed through the Java Community Process (JCP) program, by an expert group composed of over 20 companies representing the wireless industry.

Available through Sun, the Mobile Information Device Profile (MIDP) is a set of Java APIs which, together with the Connected, Limited Device Configuration (CLDC), provides a complete Java 2 Micro Edition (J2ME) application runtime environment targeted at mobile information devices, such as cellular phones and two-way pagers. The J2ME Wireless Toolkit is a set of tools that provides developers with the emulation environment, documentation and examples needed to develop CLDC/MIDP compliant applications.

Required Hardware for Java 2 Micro Edition

  • 15 MB disk space (30 MB for Forte for Java)
  • 64 MB system RAM (128 MB for Forte for Java)
  • 166 MHz CPU (300 MHz for Forte for Java)

The MID profile for the wireless platform was developed by an Sun Microsystems’ expert group utilizing the Java technology.

Motorola stated, that the release of the MID profile specification for the Java 2 Platform, Micro Edition (J2ME) marks an important milestone in the evolution

of Java technology. The MIDP specification enables software developers to write applications for wireless devices, lets operators share those applications across their networks, and will drive the success of the wireless Internet.

Companies that are expert in MID profile are such as Fujitsu, Hitachi, Motorola, NEC, Nokia, Palm Computing, Samsung, Sharp, etc… have praised the Java programming environment for wireless applications.


Nokia stated, the Java programming environment is a good fit with our vision of the Mobile Information Society and introduces a new dimension to the mobile phone user experience. For example, users will be able to retrieve Java based applications over the mobile network using WAP and execute them on the mobile device. As a programming language primarily designed for easy network use and widely supported in the industry, Java technology is also a natural choice for Nokia and the whole wireless industry. Sun Microsystem's activity in the mobile arena and in the delivery of the MID profile have been appreciated by many more customers. We are also very happy to see that all major mobile phone manufacturers are supporting Java technology and including it in their future plans.



How the technology works?


Third Generation, or 3G, technology improves current digital mobile networks in two major ways.

The first is to remove an overhang from the days of analogue networks, where connections are ‘circuit switched’. Here, a communications channel is opened for a voice call or data transmission and left open until the call ends. Existing second generation mobile networks such as GSM use circuit switching.

Third Generation networks instead employ ‘packet-switching’ techniques more like those used on the Internet than traditional phone networks. These use sophisticated data handling methods that slice and dice both voice phone calls and data transmissions into bundles, or ‘packets’, of digital information. In turn, these are sent, almost like letters in the post, over radio channels in the air.

Each packet is efficiently dispatched and reassembled into a seamless voice call or message at the other end, thanks to unique identification codes attached to each packet of data and the processing power of the latest mobile and computing devices.

Second, Third Generation is much faster than today’s second generation phone networks. This will be achieved through the adoption of a range of new technologies. In the sea of acronyms that make up the world of 3G, five key standards stand out:

Code Division Multiple Access, or (CDMA) is a digital technology that uses packet switching – using the Internet Protocol itself – to convey calls. CDMA is also capable of carrying calls over much greater distances, making it suitable for use in rural areas.

Global Standard for Mobile, or GSM, is the most prevalent of the second generation network technologies. GSM networks handle data at a maximum of 14.4 kilobits per second (Kbps), and most often at 9.6Kbps.

Enhanced Data rates for Global Evolution, or EDGE, is engineered to extend current 2G networks and cheaply adapt them for 3G. EDGE boosts the amount of data that can be funneled down a single radio channel. EDGE achieves this by making use of an existing system’s network of radio towers, narrowband frequency range and data handling processes. Used in combination with GPRS (see below), EDGE converts 2G systems into 3G networks capable of carrying data at up to 384Kbps.

General Packet Radio Service, or GPRS, introduces packet switching techniques to GSM networks. GPRS offers a more than tenfold increase in bandwidth, from 9.6Kbps on a typical GSM network to 115Kbps. This technology also introduces one of 3G’s most appealing features – permanent connectivity – as under this system a mobile device is online all the time, meaning that you do not need to ‘dial in’ to access the Internet.

Wideband Code Division Multiple Access, or WCDMA, is an enhanced version of the CDMA technology. WCDMA provides access speeds of up to 2Mbps in local areas, say an office or home, and 384Kbps across greater distances. Higher data rates require a wider radio frequency band, which is why spectrum is allocated in 5MHz blocks for WCDMA, compared with 200KHz for today’s GSM networks.

Finally, each wireless network works in conjunction with highly efficient ‘backbone’ networks that cover long distances in Australia and around the world. In Australia, Telstra, Cable & Wireless Optus, Telecom New Zealand and others such as WorldCom provide the backbone, predominantly using fibre optic cables.


Figure 2 MID architecture

Federal Communications Commission is reviewing that market’s allocation of spectrum in order to speed up the transition to 3G. Much of the 2MHz frequency is tied up in second generation and other networks. For this reason, US migration to Third Generation networks may be slower than in Europe and Asia.

Mobile e-commerce, services provided through Third Generation Systems enables customers and suppliers to electronically transact irrespective of location or time.

Mobile e-commerce Applications include:

  • Mobile Stock Trading
  • Wireless Banking
  • Logistics Management
  • Field Service Automation
  • Sales Force Automation
  • Wireless Ticketing
  • Corporate System Access
  • Wireless Travel Management


Third Generation in the Near Future


Sprint PCS is taking the leadership in deploying 3G, 1xCDMA technology into its network. Nationwide deployment of the network platform upgrade is slated to be completed in the first half of 2002. There are three major benefits of 3G:

  • Up to double the voice capacity of the network
  • Up to a tenfold data speed increase, from 14.4 kbps to 144 kbps (a thousand bits per second); and
  • An increase in battery life of a wireless phone in standby mode by nearly 50 percent.

Over the next two to three years, the 3G data speeds will rapidly increase into the multi-megabit per second range, enabling new types of applications and services in the mobile wireless environment while greatly improving spectral efficiency for data services overall. 3G will give more of a desktop experience in the handset.

Not only will customers be able to browse the Web at far faster rates, but phones will evolve by the first half of 2002 that will include more color screens, video transfer, photographs, music downloads and whole new set of service capabilities (Reference # 6).

AT&T Wireless is using a technology platform known as Wideband CDMA, or WCDMA, another version of 3G CDMA. W-CDMA is the infrastructure technology most GSM and TDMA carriers are expected to use to migrate their services to 3G capabilities. It eventually will deploy W-CDMA infrastructure.

Verizon announced last month that it plans to increase its global presence. Also, it would migrate Verizon Wireless to W-CDMA. GSM is the most widely used wireless standard worldwide. With Vodafone and other European GSM operators migrating to 3G capabilities with W- CDMA, Verizon Wireless could link with more international carriers if it opts for W-CDMA. Verizon Communications and Vodafone created the world’s largest CDMA network last April when they merged their U.S. wireless systems to form Verizon Wireless.

Consumer Reports lists the following ratings on 3G hand set provider by digital format, in performance order. These handsets are compatible with services offered by Sprint PCS, U.S. Cellular, and Verizon Wireless.

Excellent = 5, Very Good = 4, Good = 3, Fair = 2, Poor = 1

Key No


Overall Score

Voice Quality under Noisy

Voice Quality under Quiet

Ease of Use

Battery Life


Samsung SCH 3500







Motorola Timeport P8160







Audiovox CDM-9000







Motorola SC3160







Nokia 6185







Qualcomm (now Kyocera)







Nokia 5180






The high-scoring handset combine good voice quality and battery life with convenient features and ease of use. Samsung SCH 3500 is a very good choice if Sprint PCS is your carrier. Motorola Timeport P8160 and SC316 are good choice for Verizon Wireless, Alltel, and other providers using the CDMA format.




Telecommunications networks and data networks are converging rapidly in wireless networks because customers want the double benefits of mobile telephony and access to network services such as email and the web from anywhere at any time.

Mobile access to data services will revolutionize the computing world. Currently the number of wireless communications devices installed worldwide already exceeds the number of desktop PCs. The proliferation of mobile Internet access will create new opportunities for device makers, network operators, mobility-based service providers, and content providers who fully embrace the changes required for mobile Internet services.

Sun develops IP and Java technology-based computing for wireless networks to continue the open standards tradition that makes it competitive in all areas of network computing.

Leveraging Java technology, wireless device manufacturers, operators and content creators can develop highly differentiated products and services by providing dynamic, personalized, interactive content that can be offered to consumers at any time. The completion of the MID profile specification for Java technology in wireless advances the capabilities for wireless application development and network connectivity to a new level of sophistication and dramatically illustrates how the Java Community Process balances cross-industry cooperation with speed to market. We are gratified that such a large list of wireless industry players have selected Java technology as the foundation upon which they build their next generation personalized, interactive services (Reference # 3).

Applications and solutions are essential for the mobile Internet market. With speedy access, secure transactions and messaging, Third Generation technology drives the mobile Internet applications industry.

Sun has put its network experience and technologies together to create a vision of the service-driven Third Generation network. Third Generation wireless will change communications and the Internet. Sun technology enables those changes, and provides technologies and product to all of the players building tomorrow’s networks.

In the near future, mobility won't be an add-on: it will become a fundamental aspect of many services. We'll expect high-speed access to the Internet, entertainment, information and electronic commerce (e-commerce) services wherever we are – not just at our desktop computers, home PCs or television sets, but also on the road at our finger tips.




Third Generation


Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting


Air Combat Maneuvering Instrumentation


Air Combat Training Systems


Air Force Satellite Control Network


Business Support System


Code Division Multiple Access


Connected Limited Device Configuration (for J2ME platforms)




dB Referred to Isotropic


Defense Meteorological Satellite Program


Department of Defense


Department of Energy


Department of the Interior


Department of Justice


Defense Support Program


Digital Wideband Transmission System


Electromagnetic Compatibility


Enhanced Data rates for Global Evolution


Federal Aviation Administration


Federal Communications Commission


Fleet Satellite Communications


Frequency Shift Keying




Gigahertz (109 Hertz)


Government Master File


General Packet Radio Service


Global Positioning System


Global System for Mobile Communications


Geosynchronous Orbit


GPRS Tunneling Protocol


High Earth Orbit


International Mobile Telecommunications-2000


Interference-to-Noise Ratio


Interference plus Noise


International Telecommunication Union


ITU Radiocommunication Sector


ITU Telecommunication Standardization Sector


Java 2 Micro Edition


Java archive file formats


Java DataBase Connectivity APIs.


Java Naming and Directory Interfaces


Java Server Pages


Java Virtual Machine


Joint Tactical Combat Training System


Kilobits per Second


Kilohertz (103 Hertz)




Low Earth Orbit




Megabits per Second


Media Gateway Control Protocol


Media Gateway


Megahertz (106 Hertz)


Mobile Information Device


Mobile Information Device Profile


Military Strategic and Tactical Relay


Mobil Switching Center


Mobile Subscriber Equipment


North Atlantic Treaty Organization


National Defense Authorization Act


Network Equipment Provider




Non-Geosynchronous Orbit


National Telecommunications and Information Administration


Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1993


Operating System


Operations Support System


Personal Communications Services


Proliferation Detection Technology


Remote Tracking Station


Radio Transmission Technology


Satellite Operations


Space Based Infrared System


Satellite Control Network


Space Ground Link Subsystem


Subscriber Identity Module


Satellite Operations Control Center


Secure Sockets Layer


Space Transportation System (Space Shuttle)


Tactical Air Combat Training System


Time Division Multiple Access


Tracking, Telemetry, and Command


Tennessee Valley Authority


UHF Follow-On


United Kingdom


Unified S-Band System


U.S. Coast Guard


U.S. Department of Agriculture


United States and Possessions


Virtual Private Network


Wideband Code Division Multiple Access


Wideband Code Division Multiple Access


1992 World Administrative Radio Conference


1997 World Radiocommunication Conference


2000 World Radiocommunication Conference





  1. Federal Communications Commission web site (http://www.fcc.gov/3G )
  2. National Telecommunications and Information Administration web site (http://www.ntia.doc.gov/osmhome/reports/imt2000/execsum.html)
  3. Sun Microsystems web site (http://www.sun.com/smi/Press/sunflash/2000-09/sunflash.20000919.1.html)
  4. Managing Editor All Net Devices by David Haskin, May 9, 2000.
  5. Ericsson web site (http://www.ericsson.com.au/3G/3g_what_is_3g.asp)
  6. The Point For All Sprint Employees, March 2001, Volume 2, Number 3 pages 6 – 8.
  7. Consumer Reports, February 2001, pages 12 – 18.
  8. Wireless Today, Section: Vol. 5, No. 26, February 12, 2001
  9. United States Talking Points for WRC-2000 on IMT-2000 spectrum requirements.
  10. Enabling the Wireless Net Effect : How Sun Drives Wireless Architectures to 3G and Beyond, Sun Microsystems, Part NO FE1431-0, Sun Win No 126239, October 2000, Revision 11.
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