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Programming Languages

A program is a list of instructions that a programmer writes for the computer to follow in order to perform a specific task that the programmer wants the computer to do. There are many programming languages that are available and are used by different business today. The procedures used for all programming languages the same. There are five-steps that all programmers follow, when they write a program. These steps are setup to make organize programming, consider the user, the procedures the program should follow, and the different approaches they should to solve problems. The following gives you the five-steps and what the steps consist.

Steps Description

Define the Problem Defining the problem require six steps:
  1. Specify Objectives & User: What are you trying to accomplish and who are the people that will be using this program.
  2. Specify the Desire Output: What kind of output are you expecting from this program
  3. Specify the Desire Input: Since you know what the output is you can specify what the input should be.
  4. Specify the Desire Processing: What processing should the input be in order for it to provide the necessary output (online or patch).
  5. Study the Feasibility of Implementing the Program: How will the program budget be spread-out to accomplish this task.
  6. Document the Analysis: Analysis the notes that you have gathered from the above steps and study them.
Design The Program This second step consist of three mini-steps:
  1. Determine the Program Logic, Using Top-Down Approach: Setting up an outline and the layout of the program. Defining the top module and then breaking it down in to hierarchy all the way to the lowest level.
  2. Design Details, Using Pseudocode and/or Flow-chart: In order to show the details of the program design you can draw them by using flowcharts or Pseudocode.
  3. Do a Structured Walkthrough: A group of programmers in your team go through the design and see if there are anything that has been left out of correct any errors that need to be corrected.
Code the Program This step is where the actual writing of the program starts. It consist of two main steps:
  1. Select the Appropriate Programming Language: This is the step where you select what tip of programming languages should be used that is suitable for the task you are trying to accomplish.
  2. Follow the Syntax: Once the programming language has been selected you start writing the program. Most programming languages has different syntax, you must follow those syntax.
Test the Program In order to test a program there are three things you must do:
  1. Perform Desk-Checking: Going through the program making sure it is logic works.
  2. Debug the Program: Going through the program and detecting programming error, than locating it, and final removing. Making sure that all the programming errors are corrected and there is on bug in the program.
  3. Testing the Program with Real-World Data: After you make sure that the program is correct then you must test the program by providing it with input and seeing what the output is. You use a real-world data as input.
Document the Program This final step is where you write the purpose and the process of you program. This requires two type of documentation.
  1. Write User Documentation: This is a manual that you are setting up for the user to have in order to operate the program you wrote.
  2. Write Programming Documentation: This will is a note about your program for the individual that will be fixing and maintaining the program. This is usually applied when the original programmers are not the once maintaining the program.

Programming Software

There are many programming languages that can be used to write a program. These languages have taken five generations of evolving staring from machine languages into natural languages. These are the languages that programmer use to write programs or create other kinds of software. There are some third and forth generation languages that are used today, in addition to the fifth generation languages. Here is a list of the programming Languages that are used currently in our generation. The following list contains the date and the name of the company that created them, the name of the programming languages, and a brief description of the programming language. If you would like more information on any of the following programming languages send us a request and we will be glade to post your request on a Web page for you.

Date/ Developer Programming Languages Description of Languages

1950's ALGOL  The ALGOL Programming Language started out in the late 1950s.  For more info click here.
IBM, in 1954 FORTRAN (Formula-Translator) First high level language used to express mathematical formulas, scientific problems, and engineering problems
1960 COBOL(Common Business Oriented Languages) A language used by majority mainframe users. The latest version of this programming language is COBOL-85. 
John Chimney & Thomas Kurtz, in 1965 BASIC(Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code) A very easy to learn language that has the is interactive. there are many version of this language the most popular are QuickBASIC, True BASIC, and Visual BASIC.
1964 Pascal(17 century mathematician Blaise Pascal) A language that uses structured programming mostly used for teaching purposes. Pascal is and easy to learn language that is an alternative for BASIC.
Bell Laboratories, in 1970 C A language used mostly to write operating-systems, database management software, and scientific applications. C is a general-purposes language that can be portable among many computers.
U.S. Department of Defense, in 1979 Ada A language that is extremely powerful structural language. Ada is based on Pascal
At MIT by John MicCarthy, in 1958 LISP(List Processor) A language used to construct artificial intelligence programs.
IBM, in 1964 PL/1(Programming Language 1) A language that contains many best features of COBOL & FORTRAN. PL/1 is by both businesses and scientific applications which is flexible and easy to learn.
IBM, in 1964 RPG(Report Program Generator) A language used to help generate business report. The new version of this programming language is RPG III which provides a menu oriented choices for programmers.
At MIT by Seymour Papert, 1967 Logo A language primarily setup to teach children problem-solving and programming skills.
Kenneth Iverson, in 1968 APL(A Programming Language) A Programming language that uses a special keyboard symbols to enable users to solve problems that is mathematical related in one step.
Charles Moore, in 1971 FORTH(Fourth Generation Language) A language designed for real-time control task, businesses application, graphics application. FORTH language is a vary high speed run-time and requires very little memory space.
Alan Colmerauer, in 1972 PROLOG(Programming Logic) A language used to develop artificial intelligence applications program like natural language  and expert system.
Niklause Wirth, in 1981 Modula-2(Modular Language-2) A language that is similar to Pascal used to write system software programs. This program is highly structural and is used in colleges and universities for teaching purposes.
Wayne Ratliff, in 1982 dBASE A language that is similar to Pascal used to control the structure of a database and a means to access data.
Alen Kay, 1970 Smalltalk The first object-oriented programming language.
Bjarne Stroustrup, C++ An object-oriented programming language that was originally an extension of C. It is now a powerful language.
Java For more info visit: http://java.sun.com/ 
Oberon Native Oberon Operating System for more info go to http://www.oberon.ethz.ch/native/ 
Turbo Pascal An object-oriented version of Pascal programming.
Philippe Kahn, 1984 Perl A simple programming software you can use to substitute for C program program. Perl is easy to learn and apply.
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